In Sri Lanka, as in many others countries with a centralized teacher service, there is a problem of getting teachers to locate In poor rural (and estate) areas, when they can tap patronage systems to obtain transfers to more popular areas. Various incentives schemes have been tried, in a number of countries including Sri Lanka, but with limited success.
An alternative, to address the problem of staffing poor rural and estate schools, would be to appoint teachers directly to schools, perhaps combined with an extra financial allowance as an incentive. Then, if teachers wanted to move to new schools, they would need to resign from their present appointments and seek a fresh appointment in another school, rather than seek a transfer.
Here are some examples of countries that recruit teachers: (a) directly to schools; (b) to local administrations; and (c) central or intermediate levels.
Teachers hired by individual schools: e.g. China, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, England and Wales.
Teachers hired by local administrations such as school districts: e.g. Finland and the USA.
Hiring at a higher level of government (intermediate/central) : e.g. Greece, Turkey, Sri Lanka.